Volunteering Opportunities with Tree and
Woodland Charities across the UK
(subject to availability)
The Woodland Trust is the UK's largest woodland conservation charity, concerned with the creation, protection, and restoration of native woodland.
The Woodland Trust maintains ownership of over 1,000 sites covering over 24,700 hectares (247 km2). 33% is ancient woodland.
The Woodland Trust has three key aims: (1) to protect ancient woodland which is rare, unique and irreplaceable, (2) the restoration of damaged ancient woodland, (3) plant native trees and woods with the aim of creating resilient landscapes for people and wildlife
The National Trust
The National Trust care for 25,000 hectares (61,776 acres) of woodland , which is 10% of the total 250,000 hectares of land it manages and a total tree count of 12 million. This includes 135 wild landscape sites and more than 200 gardens,.
They have made a commitment to increase this woodland to 17 per cent over the next 10 years, by planting 20 million trees over the next decade.
The Rivers Trust
The Rivers Trust is the umbrella organisation for 60 local member Trusts, They are the only group of environmental charities in the UK and Ireland, dedicated to protecting and improving river environments for the benefit of people and wildlife.
The Rivers Trusts across the UK are respnsible for large scale tree planting to protect against flooding, bank erosion and to cool rivers. For example, Ribble Rivers, Lune Rivers and Wyre Rivers Trusts in Lancashire have a goal to plant 500.000 trees by 2030, which alone will double the tree cover in Lancashire.
The National Association for Areas of Outstanding Beauty (NAAONB)
The NAAONB suports the UK's 46 areas of 0utstanding natural beauty An (AONB) is a designated exceptional landscape whose distinctive character and natural beauty are precious enough to be safeguarded in the national interest. AONBs are protected and enhanced for nature, people, business and culture. The National Association for AONBs is a registered charity with a collective voice that supports and develops AONBs.
In 2019 the association pledged that at least 36,000 ha of new woodland will have been planted or allowed to regenerate in AONBs following the principle of the right tree in the right place, and that at least 100,000 ha of wildlife-rich habitat outside of protected sites will have been created/restored in AONBs to further support the natural movement of plants and animals
Small Woods are the UK organisation for small woodland owners, workers, supporters, and social foresters. They stand for living, sustainable woodlands alive with wildlife, people and work.
Small Woods deliver a wide range of woodland projects across the UK:
Championing sustainable woodland management
Teaching practical woodland skills
Promoting the benefits and produce of small woodlands
Helping people connect with their local woodland
In December 2020, The environmental charity, Earthwatch, received funding from the Department for Environment, Food, & Rural Affairs (Defra) Green Recovery Challenge Fund to boost their Tiny Forest initiative.
They will use the funding to establish 12 Tiny Forests in urbanised areas across the UK. They will engage local communities, including schools, in planting Tiny Forests and monitoring their environmental benefits, as well as give them a place to enjoy nature. They will also build a data platform to support the monitoring of all the Tiny Forests we plant in the UK, which will be a key tool in providing evidence on the environmental benefits of Tiny Forests.
The Conservation Foundation
In 1982 The Conservation Foundation was formed by David Shreeve and David Bellamy. It creates and manages environmental projects, award schemes, awareness campaigns, publications and events covering wide ranging environmental issues and aimed at different and diverse audiences.
Tree conservation projects include The Great British Elm Experiment, The Mulberry Projects and We Love Yew all of which seek to record, conserve and propagate the population of these less common trees in in the UK.
CPRE (Campaign for Protection of Rural England)
CPRE, the countryside charity, formerly known as the Campaign to Protect Rural England, is a charity in England with over 40,000 members and supporters. Formed in 1926 by to limit urban sprawl. CPRE is one of the oldest environmental groups in England and influenced the formation of national parks and AONB's..
Much of CPRE's work at a national level is lobbying government about and campaigning for the protection of the rural countryside in England. One of its key campaigns is for the protection of hedgerows and they call for a 40% increase in hedgerows by 2050.
In addition, many of its regional branches throughout England either organise or financially support local tree planting initiatives..
Founded in 2020, Protect Earth is a registered charity in England and Wales. Their purpose is simple: we aim to plant, and help people plant, as many trees as possible in the UK to help mitigate the climate crisis, working with landowners, environmental organisations, and the general public.
They help land owners plant trees on their land, and we buy degraded farmland to reforest ourselves.
As well as sourcing land and planting trees, they assist with: resources and education, project management and ongoing support for the forests they have planted.
Forestry and Land, Scotland
Forestry and Land Scotland is responsible for managing and promoting Scotland's national forest estate. The land covers 8% of Scotland and is owned by the Scottish Government on behalf of the nation. Two thirds of the estate is wooded.
Under their management are ancient native woodland (including remnants of the great Caledonian pine forest), newly planted conifer plantations, lush broadleaf forests, shrubby woodland, and trees at the side of rivers, and trees around towns. Their. woodlands contain many of Scotland’s most threatened species.
Through careful management and measured intervention, they aim to protect and enhance the biodiversity of these unique habitats
In January 2021, Forestry and Land Scotland pledged to plant 25 million trees by end of 2022, while harvesting 9 million in 2021...a net gain of 3.5m trees in 2021 if 12.5m are planted in the year..
NatureScot is Scotland’s nature agency with 30 years’ experience advising the Scottish Government on the management and development of Scotland;s natural environment.
Formally Scottish Natural Heritage, the organisation rebranded to NatureScot in August 2020.
Nature Scot manages 29 of Scotland's 49 national nature reserves (NNRs). many of which have extensive woodland.
They are seeking to expand native woodlands on many of the reserves through tree planting and natural regeneration. particularly at Beinn Eighe NNR, Creag Meagaidh NNR and Invereshie & Inshriach NNRi
Trees for Life (Scotland)
Trees for Life are a conservation charity dedicated to rewilding the Scottish Highlands. They have established 44 tree planting sites and planted nearly two million trees.
They aim to restore the unique Caledonian Forest which once covered much of Scotland for the benefit of wildlife and people.
Celtic Rainforests Wales
Celtic Rainforests refers to the Atlantic oak woodlands which run along the western coast of the British Isles. They form part of a habitat type named ‘coastal temperate rainforests’,
These woodlands in Wales are currently in an unfavorable condition and are continuing to deteriorate. The spread of Rhododendron is primarily responsible for the deterioration. Other factors are over or under grazing, lack of management and atmospheric nitrogen pollution.
The group's main aim is to improve the habitat within these woodlands, which is host to 1000;s of other species, by removing invasive plants and not-native tree species, that threaten the woodlands
Greener Every Day (Cumbria)
Greener Every Day is a charity that plants native trees in Cumbia to fight climate change, offset carbon emissions, improve levels of biodiversity, fight woodland disease, improve peoples wellbeing and build natural flood defences.
Volunteers and donations are weilcome.
The Treemendous York partnership, a voluntary not-for-profit group supported by City of York Council, was formed in 2011, bringing together organisations and individuals with an interest in tree and hedgerow planting to drive forward a programme of planting 50,000 trees in Greater York. They have planted over 30,000 trees and 1,000m of hedgerows to date, and counting. Their work is now part of the Northern Forest initiative
Sheffield Tree Action Groups (STAG)
STAG is a non-party political ‘umbrella-group’ of local tree action groups in Sheffield. Healthy trees are being ‘replaced’ as part of the ‘Streets Ahead’ highways PFI contract, run by Amey Plc on behalf of Sheffield City Council.
Forced publication of the contract has revealed a target to replace 17,500 (or half) of Sheffield’s street trees.
Although renewing street trees is vital work, to cut down so many in such a short space of time is ecological vandalism. STAG campaigns for an expert-led approach to the management of the city’s street trees, for the long-term benefit of Sheffield’s people and our natural environment. .
Save Our Street Trees (Northampton)
Save Our Street Trees is a voluntary organisation, set up in 2016 to campaign to preserve, protect and secure the planting of new and replacement urban street trees in Northampton. In 2020, it became a constituted community group.
Key to their campaigning is their network of Tree Wardens across Northampton. These volunteers monitor and record trees in their area and alert us to trees being removed, or those in need of care and attention.
More Trees for B&NES (Bath & North East Somerset
More Trees BANES is a not-for-profit community group, that works hard to protect and plant trees in the Bath and NE Somerset area. Set up in 2008, they are run entirely by volunteers.
We’ve planted approximately 8,000 trees so far, and are currently scaling up our work significantly.
During the winter, volunteers plant trees, and for the rest of the year, give the young trees TLC (weeding, mulching, restaking etc). They also need volunteers to help behind the scenes e.g. representing at events, fundraising, spreading the word, planning projects, building the website, producing content, social media, managing finances etc.
Andover Trees United
Andover Trees United is a volunteer-led charity working in partnership with schools, local authorities, businesses, and environmental organisations to promote conservation and improve access to natural wild spaces. around Andover, Hampshire
By working closely with 25 schools across Andover, their aim is to involve every young person in the community in 10 years of woodland creation 2012 - 2021.. Harmony Woods is the result of this collaborative action and their flagship community wood.
Tree Musketeers (Hackney, London)
Tree Musketeers are a group of volunteers in Hackney, London who:
Grow trees at their community Tree Nursery.
Plant trees in parks and other green spaces across Hackney.
Plant and care for Hackney community orchards.
Support local groups to plant trees on estates and green spaces.
Manage forest trees in Wick Woodland.
Work with Hackney Council and other community organisations to promote good practices for urban tree stewardship.
Street Trees For Living (Lewisham, London)
Street Trees for Living plants over 200 street trees across the London Borough of Lewisham yearly.
They raise funds to support Lewisham Council's street tree planting scheme and liaise with the council on behalf of residents.
They support Street Reps, Tree Guardians and Sponsors by offering initial planting surveys, providing information and flyers and attending local meetings.
They work closely with schools and community groups to assist in sourcing local sponsorship and creating green corridors.
They promote and nurture community interest and engagement in street trees across Lewisham.
The Tree Council & Local Tree Wardens
The Tree Council bring together everyone with a shared mission to care for trees.. They inspire and empower organisations, government, communities and individuals with the knowledge and tools to create positive, lasting change at a national and local level.
The also manage a national force of volunteer Tree Wardens who through local Tree Warden Groups champion their local trees. They organise local tree protection and planting activities, fundraise, research and advise on trees and related topics.
Trees for Cities
Trees for Cities are the only UK charity working at a national and international scale to improve lives by planting trees in cities. They have planted over 1.1 million urban trees since 1993 with over 80000 volunteers.
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)
The RSPB is largest wildlife conservation charity in Europe and maintains more than 170 nature reserves in the UK, 18 of which are classified as woodland reserves, ,They also manage a number of forests such as Sherwood Forest and Budby South Forest in the Midlands.
Rewilding Britain are the only country-wide organisation in Britain focusing on rewilding.
Rewilding Britain wants to see a mosaic of species-rich habitats restored and connected across at least 30% of Britain’s land and sea by 2030.
They publish research, and campaign, on the positive impact of rewilding and support landowners to put rewilding into practice.
Students For Trees
Students for Trees aims to protect, enhance and celebrate woods and trees on our campuses and/or around colleges and universities.
They work in partnership with the Woodland Trust towards acheiving:
A change in attitudes towards trees and woods
Students learning about the heritage value of woods and trees
Students actively cherishing and protecting trees by setting up local student Charter Branches
The provision of advice and resources for local student-led tree projects
Trees for Streets
Trees for Streets is the new National Street Tree Sponsorship scheme.
They aim to make it easy for residents and organisations to donate to the planting and watering of trees in their streets and neighbourhoods. They host sponsorship schemes of behalf of local councils.
Giving residents the means to directly improve their neighbourhood, is a powerful way to increase community resilience, and helps dissolve barriers between councils and residents.
For over 100 years, Forestry England have been growing, shaping and caring for over 1,500 of England's forests for the benefit and enjoyment of all. They care for more land and trees than any other organisation in England. Shaping landscapes for people, wildlife and timber.
There are currently 224 National Nature Reserves (NNRs) in England with a total area of over 94,400 hectares - approximately 0.7% of the country’s land surface.
Natural England manages about two thirds of England’s NNRs. The remaining reserves are managed by organisations approved by Natural England, for example, the National Trust, Forestry Commission, RSPB, Wildlife Trusts and local authorities.
Natural England helps deliver many of the Government nature recovery finance programmes that fund tree planting and natural woodland regeneration such as the Green Recovery Challenge Fund,
Trees for Learning
Trees for Learning scheme is being co-ordinated by The Mersey Forest and delivered by Community Forests all over England, working with around 1,000 schools to plant 164,000 trees across the UK.. They also work with the Woodland Trust, who are leading the delivery targeted at some of the most deprived areas of the country.
If your school would like to take part in Trees for Learning please contact the Mersey Forest on 01925 816 217
Reforesting Scotland aims to:
Promote a sustainable forest culture and economy in a well-forested land
Develop the use of locally-produced forest goods and services
Encourage social and ecological restoration in forests and in wider land use
Raise awareness of the benefits of low-energy living based on woodland resources
The Borders Forest Trust (Scotland)
Borders Forest Trust helps restore native woodland to Southern Scotland and encourage an interest in woodland culture in the local community. The own 6 woodland properties in the region.
They aim to revive the Wild Heart of Southern Scotland through demonstrating excellence in ecological restoration of our own properties, and through partnerships with other woodland owners.
Before Borders Forest Trust was established only 0.26% (1200ha) of the land in the Scottish Borders was covered in native (ancient and semi-natural) woodland. So far, they have planted near 2 million native trees in the south of Scotland to help improve the very low tree coverage.
Stump Up For Trees (Wales)
Stump Up For Trees is an ambitious, community-based charity focused on woodland creation and enhancing biodiversity in the Brecon Beacons area of south-east Wales.
The charity plans to plant one million trees, using innovative public-private funding initiatives.
Planted started at Bryn Arw Common in early February 2021 planting 135,000 mixed native hardwoods.. That season it was the single largest tree planting project in Wales.
Llais y Goedwig (Community Woodland Network, Wales)
Llais y Goedwig was created to promote and represent community-led woodland groups in Wales, and to provide assistance and support to groups and initiatives who aim to encourage local community engagement in woodlands for conservation, amenity, economic development and enjoyment.
Bradford Environmental Action Trust (BEAT)
BEAT is a dynamic, forward thinking charity, in Bradford working actively with its local community to take up the environmental challenge. Working with individuals, schools, businesses and other organisations, we deliver innovative and practical environmental projects which work towards a sustainable future.
BEAT has planted 715000 trees since its formation in 1990 including 500000 for the Forest of Bradford project.
Colne Valley Tree Society (West Yorkshire)
The Colne Valley Tree Society are a registered charity and group of volunteers, who have planted native species trees in and around the Colne Valley. West Yorkshire, since 2007, planting many thousands of trees in their history.
New volunteers are always welcome.
Sherwood Forest Trust (Nottinghamshire)
250 years ago, Sherwood Forest covered 20% of Nottinghamshire but now covers less than 5% and has become fragmented and continues to be threatened. It is one of the most important sites in Europe for Ancient Trees.
Sherwood forest is managed through a partnership of conservation organisations and councils led by the RSPB, but The Sherwood Forest Trust is the only charity whose work is solely focussed on the protection, preservation and promotion of Sherwood Forest.
Its project is focussed on the restoration of lowland heathlands, planting new trees and creating woodlands. They plant hundreds of trees annually, but want to increase that to thousands.
In December 2020 they were awarded £168,000 by the UK Government's Green Recovery Challenge Fund to support their conservation work. They
Avon Needs Trees
Avon Needs Trees is a registered charity based in Bristol that is buying land in the Bristol-Avon Catchment Area for reforesting.
In August 2020 they completed their first purchase – 34 acres near Calne, Wiltshire – and are now seeking a second area of land to purchase and regenerate..
Bristol Tree Forum
Bristol Tree Forum are a group of volunteers dedicated to protecting and increasing the tree canopy cover of Bristol’s urban forest.
Their aims are to:
Provide a forum to encourage community engagement in Bristol’s urban tree management decisions.
Promote the importance and value of Bristol’s urban trees.
Work to increase tree canopy cover in Bristol through better protection of existing trees and planting new ones.
in line with the One City Plan to help double urban tree canopy cover by 2046.
Ringwood Actions for Climate Emergency (Hampshire)
RACE aims to share ideas and agree actions that members of the Ringwood community can take to help address the carbon footprint and biodiversity of the area. It is designed to be a positive way of channeling the energy of the community to make a difference. All ideas, small and large are very welcome.
Across 2020 and 2021, the group planted over 28,000 trees in the Ringwood area of Hampshire.
Trees For Bermondsey
Trees for Bermondsey's mission is to plant more trees and to protect, restore and increase tree canopy in Southwark, London, particularly, on the streets, estates and public areas of Bermondsey. They believe that more street trees will make our borough a healthier and more beautiful place to live
They do this by raising awareness and promoting the benefits of trees in the urban environment and creating a link between residents, workers, schools, businesses and Southwark Council.
The Wildlife Trusts
The Wildlife Trusts is an association of 46 wildlife trusts across the UK. Each Trust is an independent charity but all share a vision of land and seas rich in wildlife, The central charity role is to ensure a strong unified voice for and lead the movement..
Combined the trusts have more than 850,000 members, 38,000 volunteers, 2,000 staff and 600 trustees, looking after 2300 nature reserves.
They also influence and develop policies for UK land and seas, using their experience on the ground to work and campaign for laws and polices that help wildlife.
Royal Forestry Society
The Royal Forestry Society (RFS) is the largest and longest established education charity promoting the wise management of woods in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Their mission is to inspire passion and excellence in woodland management. We do this through education and knowledge-sharing, which have been at the heart of the RFS ethos since its foundation in 1882.
The Conservation Volunteers (TCV)
During 2019, TCV worked with 101,000 people
Transforming 1,500 green spaces
Delivering 130,000 volunteer days in 12,500 projects
Involving 23,000 schoolchildren
Improving 40 hectares of woodland
Planting 66,000 trees and giving 224,000 trees to community groups
Its activities in 2020 were reduced due to Covid 19 but they still managed to plant 50,000 tree, give 340,000 trees to community groups and transform 900 green spaces
The Orchard Project
The Orchard Project is the only national charity dedicated to the creation, restoration and celebration of community orchards.
Their aim is that every household in the UK’s town and cities be within walking distance of a productive, well-cared-for, community-run orchard. bringing orchards into the heart of urban communities.
Plantlife is a British conservation charity working nationally and internationally to save threatened wild flowers, plants and fungi . They own nearly 4,500 acres of nature reserve across England, Scotland and Wales, which includes woodland. They have 11,000 members and supporters and HRH The Prince of Wales is our Patron.
Their team of dedicated conservation experts work with landowners, businesses, conservation organisations, community groups and governments, pushing boundaries to save our rarest flora and ensure familiar flowers and plants continue to thrive.
Current woodland conservation projects include:
* Atlantic woodlands of Devon, Somerset, Cornwall
* Atlantic woodlands of the Lake District
* Scotlands West Coast Rainforests.
* Native Caledonian Pinewoods in The Cairngorms, Scotland
The NHS Forest has over 150 sites and is a project which aims to:
Improve the health and wellbeing of patients, staff and communities by increasing access to green space on or near to NHS land
encouraging use of woodland for art, food crops, reflection and exercise
highlight innovative ideas to encourage the use of gardens and other green space for therapeutic purposes.
We do this by:
Planting the NHS Forest
Green Health Routes
The NHS Forest Conference
Compiling evidence for the impact of nature on health
Supporting the development of therapeutic gardens
Supporting workplace wellbeing using green space
Partnering with green space and healthcare charities.
Friends of the Earth (FoE) - England, Wales & Northern Ireland
Friends of the Earth has local groups in around 150 neighbourhoods in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. That makes them the largest grassroots environmental campaigning community in the UK.
These groups are run by thousands of volunteers from all backgrounds. They bring people together to improve their local environment, and see off unjust proposals.
They believe one of the best solutions to protect our environment and achieve net zero emissions is to double UK forest cover. FoE campaigns widely at national and local level for more tree cover and is involved in many local tree planting schemes
The Carbon Community
The Carbon Community is a new charity dedicated to creating forests and accelerating carbon removal, with breakthrough science.
Its planting and restoration projects are designed, in partnership with world leading scientists, to learn more about how to accelerate and enhance carbon sequestration.
It is committed to sharing its findings as widely as possible to increase carbon sequestration in its own projects and beyond.
Community Forest Trust (England)
CFT is the national champion for community forests in England and provides a voice for community forestry organisations that are working to plant trees, bring woodland back into use and connect people to the natural world. CFT aims to secure more investment for community forestry, ensuring a green future for all.
John Muir Trust (Scotland)
The John Muir Trust is a Scottish conservation charity with over 25,000 supporters. They were established in 1983 to conserve wild land and wild places for the benefit of all. The Trust runs an environmental award scheme, manages several wild habitats in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland and campaigns for better protection of wild land. In 2017, it took on a lease to manage Glenridding Common in the English Lake District.
The trusts owns land to protect it, and repair damage, working with local communities and volunteers to restore habitats and bring back lost species
National Trust of Scotland
National Trust Scotland cares for over 76000 hectares of natural habitat across Scotland including 8 National Nature Reserves.
There are 4 types of woodland that are being conserved and developed on the Trust's land:
* Caledonia Pinewood
* Birch and Oak Woodland
* Montane Scrub (consisting of Willow. Juniper and Dwarf Birch
* Lowland Woodland of large broadleaf trees.
Swansea Tree Forum
Swansea Tree Forum are a group of volunteers and organisations who share a wish to engage with tree management decisions in the city. They aim to protect, maintain and improve tree canopy cover in Swansea.
Another Way (Cumbria)
Another Way is an environmental charity, based in Penrith, Cumbria founded by 18 year old Amy Bray in 2019,
Another Way have planted 11700 trees and hedgerows in Cumbria since its foundation,, particularly around Matterdale.
Plant a Tree Today (PATT) Foundation (East Yorkshire/North Lincolnshire)
Founded in 2006 in Thailand, The PATT Foundation have already planted 3 million trees in Thailand but aim to now plant 1 million trees in the UK, through 3 projects in East Yorkshire, Kingston upon Hull and North Lincolnshire.
These projects are in partnership with either landowners, community groups or councils to create rural or urban forests.
Treesponsibility (West Yorkshire)
Treesponsibility's aims are to educate people about the need for action on climate change, to involve local communities in tree-planting, and to improve the local environment and biodiversity..
In recent years they have focused on tree planting for flood mitigation, and work in partnership with bodies such as the Environment Agency, Calderdale Council and the National Trust.
Since its formation in 1998, Treesponsibility has planted an average of 12 acres of new woodland every year.
Hundreds of people from all walks of life have been involved with the project, including local volunteers and landowners, schools from Calderdale and beyond.
Birmingham Tree People
Birmingham TreePeople was set up as part of the Tree Warden Scheme by Birmingham City Council’s Tree Officers in 2016.
The charity consists of knowledgeable professionals within the arboriculture industry, prepared to use their skills and expertise to plant, protect and promote trees and the urban forest.
Our Urban Forest Volunteers look out for pests and diseases on city trees and alert the tree officers, as well as spotting planning breaches.
We also help with tree-related citizen science research, developing better records for trees in the city, for The Urban Forest Master Plan.
Forest of Avon Trust
The Forest of Avon Trust is the local charity for trees and woodlands in the former county of Avon, which now comprises Bristol, North Somerset, South Gloucestershire, and Bath & North East Somerset.
It works with schools to plant trees and engage children in the natural world; it supports community groups and young people to improve their local environment; and it works with land owners to care for woodlands and plant new ones.
The charity also champions the Forest of Avon Community Forest, working with partners to safeguard existing trees and plant new woodland as part of this. It has planted 1 million trees in this project.
The trust also runs the Replant Bristol scheme with an aim to plant 250,000 trees in Bristol by 2030.
Moor Trees (Devon)
Established in 1999, Moor Trees is a Devon-based charity dedicated to recreating native woodland across Dartmoor and south Devon, and increasingly helping projects around the Tamar valley and beyond.
True natural woodland in the region is rare, mostly found in the steep valley fringes of Dartmoor.
They aim to restore native broadleaf woodland by growing trees from locally collected seed in their community tree nurseries, and planting them as new woodland on private and public land.
Moor Trees have planted over 100,000 trees and restored 88 woodland sites with the help of volunteers and generous donations.
Treebourne are part of Eastbourne Eco Action Network. Their goal is to double Eastbourne’s tree cover by 2030.
They are working with the council and independently, to find sites - large and small - where they can plant trees. and turn Eastbourne green.
They are currently aiming to plant 10000 trees and have already planted 4800 of those.
Sevenoaks Rec is their first site, identified by the council as a park that would benefit from complete regeneration, with vast, poorly used open spaces, low tree cover and limited wildlife.